Cross-Linguistic Spelling Approximations

Jill Kerper Mora (2001) and Mora Reyes (2016 in press) examined cross-linguistic spelling approximations and identified categories that are very useful in evaluating students’ generalizations and applications of their two languages.

Mora (2016) also points out that English speakers move from a 14-vowel sound system to a 5-vowel sound system, so their challenge is simplification rather than the challenge for Spanish speakers spelling in English, moving from a simpler to a more complex sound system.

When students are involved in self-assessment, they are generating internal feedback. Generating and acting on internal feedback is a form of metacognition and self-regulation.

CategoriesSpanish to English ExamplesEnglish to Spanish Examples
L1 Spelling Applied to L2meik for make

cald for called
teine for tiene

hugando for jugando
Absent Phonemescach for catch

initing for anything
stan for estan

patendo for pateando
Phoneme Collapseting for thing

finichd for finished
plieyra for playera

escula for escuela
Unfamiliar Spelling Patternsdos for does

lern for learn
parcke for parque

wevo for huevo
Word Boundariesaplejus for apple juice

haftogo for have to go
earala for ir a la

sistan for se estan
L1 Substitutionsla haus for the house

the mesa for table
pants for pantalones

for mama for para mamá