Cross-Linguistic Spelling Approximations

Jill Kerper Mora (2001) and Mora Reyes (2016 in press) examined cross-linguistic spelling approximations and identified categories that are very useful in evaluating students’ generalizations and applications of their two languages.

Mora (2016) also points out that English speakers move from a 14-vowel sound system to a 5-vowel sound system, so their challenge is simplification rather than the challenge for Spanish speakers spelling in English, moving from a simpler to a more complex sound system.

When students are involved in self-assessment, they are generating internal feedback. Generating and acting on internal feedback is a form of metacognition and self-regulation.

Categories Spanish to English Examples English to Spanish Examples
L1 Spelling Applied to L2 meik for make

cald for called
teine for tiene

hugando for jugando
Absent Phonemes cach for catch

initing for anything
stan for estan

patendo for pateando
Phoneme Collapse ting for thing

finichd for finished
plieyra for playera

escula for escuela
Unfamiliar Spelling Patterns dos for does

lern for learn
parcke for parque

wevo for huevo
Word Boundaries aplejus for apple juice

haftogo for have to go
earala for ir a la

sistan for se estan
L1 Substitutions la haus for the house

the mesa for table
pants for pantalones

for mama for para mamá